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State Normal School 
salem massachusetts 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 

State Board of Education. 

Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, A.M., 
Paul H. Hanus, LL.D., 
Levi L. Conant, Ph.D., 
Clinton Q. Richmond, A.B., 
Sarah Louise Arnold, A.M., 
Simeon B. Chase, 
Frederick P. Fish, A.B., 
Frederick W. Hamilton, D.D. 
Ella Lyman Cabot, . 










North Adams, . 


Newton Center, 


Fall River, 




Tufts College, . 


Boston, . 


Officers of the Board. 

Frederick P. Fish, Chairman. 
Ella Lyman Cabot, Clerk. 
George H. Martin, Treasurer. 

Commissioner of Education. 

David Snedden, Ph.D. 

Deputy Commissioners. 

William Orr, A.M. 
Charles A Prosser, A.M. 


George H. Martin, A.M., Lit.D 
John T. Prince, Ph.D., . 
Julius E. Warren, . 
James W. MacDonald, A.M., 
Frederic Lynden Burnham, 
Charles R. Allen, . 


West Newton. 






The Normal School. 


Theory and practice of teaching. 
Harriet Laura Martin, . Librarian. Mathematics, Latin, English. 

Jessie Putnam Learoyd, . . . . . ... English. 

Charles Frederick Whitney, ..... Manual arts. 

Mary Alice Warren, . . Physical training, physiology, nature study, 

Gertrude Brown Goldsmith, A.B., .... Psychology, biology. 

Francis Boutelle Deane, . United States history, civics, general history, 

History of education. 
. Physical training, reading. 
Supervisor of practice teaching. Child study. 


Literature, arithmetic. 

. Secretary. 

Helen Hood Rogers, 
Cassie Lucretia Paine, . 
Fred Willis Archibald, 
Harriet Emma Peet, 
Louise Caroline Wellman, 

Sumner Webster Cushing, M.A., . Geography, physiography, geography 

of commerce, economic geography. 
Arthur John Meredith, Ph.B., . Bookkeeping, commercial law, economics, 

history of commerce, arithmetic. 
Clara Ellen Townsend, Ph.B., . . . Shorthand, typewriting. 

Charles Elmer Doner, ....... Penmanship. 

Walter George Whitman, A.M., . . Physical science, physiography. 

May Heath Noyes, ..... Kindergarten methods. 

Training Department. 

The Practice School. 

Herbert Leslie Rand, Principal, 
Emma Eliza Campbell, . 
Maud Sarah Wheeler, . 
Mildred Beatrice Hopler, 
Bessie Jordan Welch, 
Mary Turner Ford, 1 
Mary Elizabeth James, . 
Bertha Louisa Carpenter, 
Gertrude March, . 
May Heath Noyes, 

Gardening, carpentry. 

Grade eight. Cooking, sewing. 

Grade seven. Cooking, sewing. 

Grade six. Sewing. 

Grade five. Sewing. 

Grade four. 

Grade three. 

Grade two. 

Grade one. 


1 Substitute teacher, 1910-1911. 

The Bertram School. 

Eliza Clara Allen, .... 

Dorothy Genieve Stevens, 
Mildred May Moses, .... 
Alice Martha Wyman, .... 

Grades three and four. 

Grade two. 

Grade one. 


The Farms School, Marblehead. 

Gertrude Ella Richardson, .... 


The necessary opportunity for observation and practice teach- 
ing for students in the commercial department is afforded in 
the Salem Commercial School and the Salem High School. 


Officers of the Salem Normal Association, 1910=1931. 

Mrs. Abbie Richards Hood, Beverly (Class LYIL), 

Miss Jessie Putnam Learotd, Danvers (Class LI.), 

Miss Mary A. Grant, Salem (Class LXX), . 

Miss Mart Elizabeth James. Salem (Class LXXXV. . 

Mrs. Emma R. Tenney. Manchester (Class XXXV. . 

Miss Anna M. Bates, Salem (Class X.), 

Miss Martha R. Orne. Lynn (Class XXXI.) , 

Mrs. Susan Farnham Thornd ike, Peabody (Class LXXIII. 

Miss Laura B. White, Boston (Class XXIX.), 

Miss Florence A. "Woodbury, Salem (Class LXIX. . 

First Secretary. 
Second Secretary. 



► Directors. 

Officers of the Senior Class. 

J. Elsie Macdonald,' 
Dorothy X. Prescott, 
G. Florence Swanson. 
Genorie P. Solomon. 


Members of the School Council 

J. Asbury Pitman, 
M. Alice Warren. 
Walter G. Whitman. 
Maude W. Xelson, 
Mary L. Edmands, 
Eva L. McPhetres, 
Abbie E. Whalen. 
Dora C. Pedersen. 
Agnes E. O. Burns. 
Ida M. George, . 
Pernal S. Johnson, 
Winifred B. Watkins, 
John J. McGlew. Jr., 


\ Faculty. 



\ Senior Class. 

lor Class. 

Calendar for 1911=1912. 

Spring Recess. 

From close of school on Saturday, February 25, 1911, to Tuesday, 

March 7, 1911, at 9.20 a.m. 
From close of school on Saturday, April 29, 1911, to Tuesday, May 

9, 1911, at 9.20 a.m. 

Graduation Week. 

Monday, June 19, 1911, Class Day. 

Tuesday, June 20, 1911, at 10.30 a.m., graduation. 

Tuesday evening, reception of the graduating class. 

First Entrance Examinations. ' 

Thursday, June 22, 1911. 2 

8.30-9.30 a.m. — Registration. (In the assembly hall.) 

9.30-11.30 a.m. — Group I. 

11.30 A.M.-12.30 p.m. — Group III. 

2-4 p.m. — Group IV. 

Friday, June 23, 1911. 2 

8.30-9.30 a.m. — Registration. (In the assembly hall.) 

9.30-11.30 a.m. — Group II. 3 

11.30 A.M.-12.30 p.m. — Group V. 

9.30-11 a.m. — Group VI. (a). 

11 a.m -12.30 p.m. — Group VI. (b and c). 

1.30-2.30. p.m. — Group VI. (d). 

2.30-3.30 p.m. — Group VI. (e). 

3.30-4.30 p.m. — Group VI. (/). 

Second Entrance Examinations. 1 

Tuesday and Wednesday, September 5 and 6, 1911. 
(Hours and order as above.) 

See page 67. 

Individual examinations in reading will be given throughout the day. 
3 Candidates who have conflicts between Groups II. and VI. may arrange, in advance, 
for an examination in Group II. on Thursday. 

Beginning of School Year. 

Thursday, September 7, 1911, at 9.20 a.m. 

Thanksgiving Recess. 

From Wednesday, 12 m v preceding Thanksgiving Day, to the fol- 
lowing Tuesday, at 9.20 a.m. 

Christmas Recess. 

From close of school on Thursday, December 21, 1911, to Tuesday, 
January 2, 1912, at 9.20 a.m. 

Beginning of Second Half=year. 

Monday, January 29, 1912. 

Spring Recess. 

From close of school on Friday, February 23, 1912, to Monday, 

March 4, 1912, at 9.20 a.m. 
From close of school on Friday, April 26, 1912, to Monday, May G, 

1912, at 9.20 a.m. 


Tuesday, June 18, 1912, at- 10.30 a.m. 

First Entrance Examinations. 

Thursday and Friday, June 20 and 21, 1912. 
(Hours and order as above.) 

Second Entrance Examinations. 

Tuesday and Wednesday, September 10 and 11, 1912. 
(Hours and order as above.) 

Note. — The daily sessions of the school are from 9.20 to 12.30 and from 1.30 to 3 
o'clock. The regular weekh' holiday of both the Normal and the practice schools is on 

The telephone call of the school is "Salem, 375." 

The principal's residence is at 260 Lafayette Street, and his telephone call is 149-1. 

State Normal School, 

saleh, Massachusetts. 


The aim of the school is distinctly professional. ^Normal 
schools are maintained by the State in order that the children in 
the public schools of the Commonwealth may have teachers of 
superior ability; therefore, no student may be admitted to or 
retained in the school, who does not give reasonable promise of 
developing into an efficient teacher. 

The school offers as thorough a course of academic instruction 
as time and the claims of professional training will permit. The 
subjects of the elementary curriculum are carefully reviewed with 
reference to methods of teaching. The professional training also 
includes the study of man from the standpoint of physiology and 
of psychology; the principles of education upon which all prac- 
tical teaching is founded; observation and practice in the appli- 
cation of these principles; and a practical study of children, 
under careful direction. In all the work of the school there is 
a constant and persistent effort to develop a true professional 
spirit, and to reveal to the student the wealth of opportunity 
which is open to the teacher, and the grandeur of a life of real 

General Requirements. 

Candidates for admission must, if young women, have reached 
the age of sixteen years, and if young men, the age of seventeen 
years, and they must declare their intention to teach, and to 
complete the course of study if possible. Their fitness for 
admission will be determined : — 

1 See also pages 39, 40 and 67. 


(1) By their standing in a physical examination. 

(2) By their moral character. 

(3) By their high school record. 

(4) (a) By certificate or (b) By written examination. 

(5) By- an oral examination. 

(1) Physical Examination". 
A certificate of good health, signed by a physician, must be 
presented by every candidate for admission to the school. 

(2) Moral Character. 

Candidates must present certificates of good moral character. 
In deciding whether they shall prepare themselves to become 
teachers, candidates should note that the vocation requires more 
than mere freedom from disqualifying defects; it demands vir- 
tues of a positive sort that shall make their impress for good upon 
those who are taught. 

(3) High School Eecord. 

It may be said, in general, that if the work of a good statutory 
high school is well done, candidates should have no difficulty in 
meeting the academic tests to which they may be subjected. 
They cannot be too earnestly urged, however, to avail themselves 
of the best high school facilities attainable in a four years' course, 
even though they should pursue studies to an extent not insisted 
on, or take subjects not prescribed, in the admission require- 

The importance of a good record in the high school cannot be 
overestimated. Principals are requested to furnish the normal 
schools with complete records of the high school standing of all 
candidates. The stronger the evidence of character, scholarship 
and promise, of whatever kind, candidates bring, especially from 
schools of high reputation and from teachers of good judgment 
and fearless expression, the less difficulty they will meet in 
satisfying the examiners as to their fitness. 


(4a) Admission by Certificate. 

At the regular meeting of the Board of Education held on 
May 2, 1907, the following votes were passed : — 

College graduates may be admitted to the State normal schools 
without examination, and may receive a diploma after satisfactorily 
completing a course of one year, requiring at least twenty recitation 
periods per week and including the advanced pedagogy and practice 
of the senior year. 

Candidates from high schools which are on the certificate list of 
the New England College Entrance Examination Board may be ad- 
mitted to any of the State normal schools without examination in 
any subject required for admission in which they have attained a 
standing of B, or 80 per cent., as certified by the principal of the 

Beginning with 1908, candidates from high schools not in the 
college certificate list may be admitted on similar conditions, if the 
high schools are approved for the purpose by the Board of Edu- 

High schools desiring this approval should correspond with the 
State Commissioner of Education. 

French may be taken in the preliminary examinations. 

Blank forms for certificates may be obtained at the office of 
the State Board of Education, Boom 303, Ford Building, Bos- 
ton, or at the school. 

(4b) Written Examination. 

The examinations will embrace papers on the following groups 
of subjects, a single paper with a maximum time allowance of 
two hours to cover each of groups L, II. and IV., and a single 
paper with a maximum time allowance of one hour to cover each 
of groups III. and V. (five papers with a maximum time allow- 
ance of eight hours) : — 

I. Language. — (a) English, with its grammar and litera- 
ture, and (b) either Latin or French. 

II. Mathematics. — (a) Algebra and (b) plane geometry. 

III. United States History. 1 — The history and civil govern- 
ments of Massachusetts and the United States, with related 

1 No substitute will be accepted. 


geography and so much of English history as is directly con- 
tributory to a knowledge of United States history. 

IV. Science. — (a) 1 Physiology and hygiene, and (&) and 
(c) any two of the following, — physics, chemistry, physical 
geography and botany, provided one of the two selected is either 
physics or chemistry. 

V. Drawing and Music. — (a) Elementary mechanical and 
freehand drawing with any one of the topics, — form, color and 
arrangement, and (b) music. 

VI. Commercial Subjects. — (See page 40.) 

(5) Oral Examination. 

Each candidate will be required to read aloud in the presence 
of the examiner. lie will also be questioned orally either upon 
some of the foregoing subjects or upon other matters within his 
experience, in order that the examiners may gain some impres- 
sion about his personal characteristics and his use of language, 
as well as to give him an opportunity to furnish any evidences of 
qualification that might not otherwise become known to them. 

General Requirements in English for All Examinations. 

No candidates will be accepted whose written English is nota- 
bly deficient in clear and accurate expression, spelling, punctua- 
tion, idiom or division of paragraphs, or whose spoken English 
exhibits faults so serious as to make it inexpedient for the normal 
school to attempt their correction. The candidate's English, 
therefore, in all oral and written examinations ivill be subject 
to the requirements implied in the statement here made, and 
marked accordingly. 

Special Directions for Written Examinations. 

Group I. — Language. 

(a) English. — The subjects of the examination will be the 
same as those generally agreed upon by the colleges and high 
technical schools of New England. 

The list of books for study prescribed by the Commission of 
Colleges in New England for 1910-1915 is as follows : — 

Shakespeare's Macbeth; Milton's Minor Poems, or Tennyson's 
Gareth and Lynette, Lancelot and Elaine, and The Passing of 


Arthur; Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America, or "Wash- 
ington's Farewell Address and Webster's First Bunker Hill Ora- 
tion; Macaulay's Life of Johnson, or Carlyie's Essay on Burns. 

The purpose of the examination is to discover (1) whether the 
student has acquired good habits of study, (2) whether he has 
formed any standards of literary judgment, (3) whether he 
has become discerning of literary merit, and (4) what acquaint- 
ance he has with standard English and American writers. 

The examination will take such a form that students who 
have followed other than the prescribed lines of reading may be 
able to satisfy the examiners on the above points. 

(b) Either Latin or French. — The translation at sight of 
simple prose or verse, with questions on the usual forms and 
ordinary constructions, and the writing of simple prose based 
in part or in full on the passage selected. 

Group II. — Mathematics. 

(a) The elements of algebra through affected quadratic equa- 

(b) The elements of plane geometry. 

While there is no formal examination in arithmetic, the im- 
portance of a practical working acquaintance with its principles 
and processes cannot be too strongly emphasized. The candi- 
date's proficiency in this subject will be incidentally tested in its 
applications to other subjects. 

In geometry, the candidate's preparatory study should include 
independent solutions and demonstrations, — work that shall 
throw him upon his own resources; and his ability to do such 
work will be tested in the examination. An acquaintance with 
typical solid forms is also important, — enough, at least, to 
enable the candidate to name and define them and to recognize 
the relations borne to them by the lines, planes, angles and fig- 
ures of plane geometry. 

Group III. — United States History. 
Any school text-book on United States history will enable can- 
didates to meet this requirement, provided they study enough of 
geography to illumine the history, and make themselves familiar 
with the grander features of government in Massachusetts and 


the United States. Collateral reading in United States history 
is strongly advised — also in English history so far as this his- 
tory hears conspicuously on that of the United States. 

A course in history and civics in the senior year in the high 
school is strongly recommended. 

Group IV. — Science. 

(a) Physiology and Hygiene. — The chief elementary facts 
of anatomy, the general functions of the various organs, the 
more obvious rules of health, and the more striking effects of 
alcoholic drinks, narcotics and stimulants upon those addicted to 
their use. A course of at least a half-year in the high school 
is advised. 

(b and c) Any Two of the Following Sciences, — Physics, 
Chemistry, Botany and Physical Geography, provided One of the 
Two is either Physics or Chemistry. — The chief elementary 
facts of the subjects selected, so far as they may be presented in 
the courses usually devoted to them in good high schools. It 
will be a distinct advantage to the candidate if his preparation 
includes a certain amount of individual laboratory work. 

A laboratory note-book, with the teacher's endorsement that it 
is a true record of the candidate's work, will be accepted as par- 
tial evidence of attainments in the science with which it deals. 
The original record should be so well kept as to make copying 
unnecessary. . 

Group V. — Drawing and Music. 

(a) Drawing. — Mechanical and free-hand drawing, ■ — 
enough to enable the candidate to draw a simple object, like a 
box or a pyramid or a cylinder, with plan and elevation to scale, 
and to make a free-hand sketch of the same in perspective. Also 
any one of the three topics, — form, color and arrangement. 

(b ) Music. — Such elementary facts as an instructor should 
know in teaching singing in the schools, — including major and 
minor keys, simple two, three, four and six part measures, the 
fractional divisions of the pulse or beat, chromatics, the right 
use of the foregoing elements in practice, and the translation 
into musical notation of simple melodies or time phrases sung or 


Group VI. — Commercial Subjects. 

(See page 40.) 

Division of Examinations. 

Candidates may be admitted to a preliminary examination in 
one or more of the following groups a year in advance of their 
final examination : — 

I. 1 French. 

II. Mathematics. 

III. United States history. 

IV. Science. 

V. Drawing and music. 

Preliminary examinations can be taken in June only. 

Every candidate for a preliminary examination must present 
a certificate of preparation in the group or groups chosen, or in 
the subjects thereof. (See page 67.) 

Candidates for the final or complete examinations are ear- 
nestly advised to present themselves, as far as practicable, in 
June. Division of the final or complete examinations between 
June and September is permissible, but it is important both for 
the normal school and for the candidate that the work laid out 
for the September examinations, which so closely precede the 
opening of the school, shall be kept down to a minimum. 


Persons desiring to enter the school, whose courses of study 
have been equivalent to, but not identical with, the requirements 
for admission, are advised to correspond with the principal. Each 
case will be considered upon its merits, and in deciding the ques- 
tion of admission there will be a serious effort to give all the 
credit that is due. Experience in teaching, according to its 
amount and kind, is regarded as very valuable. 

1 The group known as /. Language must be reserved for the final examinations, with 
the exception of French, as indicated above. It will doubtless be found generally ad- 
visable in practice that the group known as IV. Science should also be reserved. 


Students from outside the State. 

Xon-residents of this Commonwealth who are able to satisfy 
the requirements for admission may be admitted as students on 
payment of fifty dollars per year, of which sum one-half is paya- 
ble at the beginning of the year, and the other half at the middle 
of the year. This applies to all courses. 

Special Students. 

College graduates, graduates of normal schools, and other per- 
sons of suitable attainments, including those who have had con- 
siderable experience in teaching, may, by arrangement with the 
principal, select a year's work from the regular program of the 
elementary course. If this work embraces not less than twenty 
recitation periods per week of prepared work, and includes the 
course in pedagogy and practice teaching, the student will receive 
a certificate for the same upon its satisfactory completion. 

Advanced students are also admitted to elective courses in 
the commercial department. 

Prompt and regular attendance is exacted of special students, 
as well as of those in the regular course. 

A definite statement of the applicant's purpose in desiring to 
enter the school is required, and those who do not intend to re- 
main at least a full year are requested not to apply. 

The design of the school does not include the admission of 
transient students, for the purpose of taking partial or special 
courses, except in cases which are really exceptional. Personal 
culture for its own sake is not the end for which the school 
receives its students. It exists and will be administered for the 
training and improvement of teachers, and all its facilities will 
be put to their utmost use for the advantage of teachers. Thus, 
during recent years, many teachers have been allowed to attend 
the exercises in selected departments, — so far as the privilege 
could be granted without injury to regular class work, — al- 
though their names have not appeared in the catalogue as stu- 

In other cases it is sometimes found possible for those who 
have had experience in teaching, without a previous normal 
course, to enter the school and derive great benefit from a half 


year's work. Some of our most earnest students have been of 
this class. But special students who do not intend to identify 
themselves with the school are not desired. Xeither is there 
room for those who do not have a serious purpose of study and 
self -improvement, but who wish rather to secure a brief nominal 
membership in a normal school, in order to obtain a better 


The elementary course of study is designed primarily for those 
who aim to teach in the public schools below the high school 
grade. It comprises substantially the following subjects : — 

I. The study of the educational values of the following sub- 
jects, and of the principles and methods of teaching them : — 

(a) English, — reading, oral and written composition, gram- 
mar, rhetoric, English and American literature. 

(b) Mathematics, — arithmetic, algebra and plane geometry. 1 

(c) History, — history and civil polity of the United States 
and of Massachusetts. 

(d) Science, — physics, chemistry, physiograplry, botany, zool- 
ogy, geography, physiology and hygiene, nature study, garden- 

(e) Manual arts; vocal music; physical training; penmanship. 

II. (a) The study of man, body and mind, with reference to 
the principles of education ; the application of these principles in 
school organization, school government, and in the art of teach- 
ing ; the history of education ; the school laws of Massachusetts. 

(b) Observation and practice in teaching. 

The time required for the completion of this course depends 
entirely upon the student. It may not exceed two years for those 
of satisfactory preparation and superior ability ; for others, three 
years are needed to do the work properly. In many cases more 
than two years is insisted upon. Students who expect to teach in 
the upper grades of the grammar school will receive special prep- 
aration, and may elect a third year of advanced work, including 
observation and practice in these higher grades. A diploma is 
given when any course is satisfactorily completed. 

1 Not required of students who axe preparing to teach in the first six grades. 



The school does not accept the satisfactory accomplishment 
of the class work required as constituting a complete title to a 
diploma. While the fact is recognized that predictions regarding 
the success or failure of normal school students as teachers always 
involve a greater or less degree of uncertainty, it is nevertheless 
felt that the school owes its chief responsibility to the Common- 
wealth. Its duty is not fully discharged by the application of 
academic tests; certain personal qualities are so essential and 
their absence so fatal to success in teaching that the candidate 
for graduation must be judged in part from the standpoint of 

It is the aim of the school — and this is insisted upon year 
by year with increasing strictness — not to bestow its diploma 
upon those who are likely to be unable in ordinary school work to 
use the English language with ease and correctness. The power 
of the student to teach, so far as that can be ascertained and 
judged, is of course an essential element in the problem, and 
those who are manifestly unable to do so will riot be allowed to 
graduate, whatever their academic proficiency may be. 


Mr. Band, Principal; Miss Paine, Supervisor of Practice Teaching. 

In co-operation with the school committee of the city of Salem, 
the State normal school maintains in its building a complete sys- 
tem of model and practice schools, beginning with a kinder- 
garten, and fitting pupils for the local high school. The system 
also includes kindergarten and primary classes in the Bertram 
school building and a model ungraded school in Marblehead. 
The teachers are nominated by the principal of the normal 
school, and they are elected by the school committee. The as- 
signment of pupils is in the hands of the local authorities, so 
that the children do not constitute a picked company. 

The aim has been to secure in these schools as nearly as possible 
the actual conditions existing in public schools of a high class. 
It is an essential part of the plan upon which they are conducted 
that they be kept at a reasonable size. The schoolrooms them- 
selves are of ample dimensions, well lighted, thoroughly venti- 





lated, furnished with approved furniture and other appliances 
for work, and provided with sanitary conveniences of the best 
kind. By the generosity and interest of many parents they are 
also provided with beautiful decorations. 

In planning the instruction in these schools the aim is to con- 
nect it as closely as possible with the work in the normal school, 
to the end that the methods of teaching here may exemplify the 
theory in which the normal school students are taught. In the 
model and practice school located in the normal school building, 
a large part of the instruction is either supervised or actually 
given by normal school instructors. 

The critic teacher devotes her entire time to supervising the 
normal school students in their relations to the practice schools. 
Her intimate acquaintance with the work of the schools in their 
various departments and her duties as a supervisor make it easy 
to guard in the most efficient manner the interests of the children. 
The regular teachers are selected solely by reason of their effi- 
ciency, and the facilities whose use is made possible by the con- 
nection between the practice schools and the normal school are 
put to their greatest service. 

Besides the regular observation and practice teaching, oppor- 
tunity is provided for those students who intend to teach in the 
first grade to observe in the kindergartens, and all members of 
the senior class are required to take a short course in the theory 
and methods of the kindergarten and its relations to the rest 
of the elementary school system. Arrangements have also been 
made for the seniors to gain a limited amount of experience in 
teaching in the upper grades of the Pickering grammar school 
in this city. 

Junior Year. 

-n v i ) Periods Weeklv. 

_ . ( one-nali year each, ...... 4 

Literature, ) 

Reading, ........... 1 

Mathematics, 1 . 2 

Fhysiography, 2 

Physical science, ......... 2 

Biology, ) . .« , . 

_ . _ \ one-half year each, 4 

Psychology, J 

i Not required of those students who are preparing to teach in the first six grades. 


History of United States, 

Manual arts, 

Music, .... 



Senior Year 



Reading, . 



Nature study, 

Pedagogy, . 

Child study, ) 

Tr . , , . , [12 weeks each, 

Kindergarten methods, J 

History of education, 

Latin (elective), 

Manual arts, 




Periods Weekly. 


Periods Weekly. 


x 2 



English Language. 

Miss Learoyd. 

The study of language is continued throughout the two years. 
As the students come from many different schools, their prep- 
aration is varied. It is therefore necessary during the first year 
to consider the essential qualities of language, in order to lay a 
uniform foundation for the intelligent discussion of the work in 
language in the lower grades. 

The subjects taken are considered chiefly from the standpoint 
of the teacher. Suggestions are given for planning and pre- 
senting subjects to a class, and opportunity is given for practice 
before the normal school class. Frequent oral and written 
criticisms are required. The students are expected gradually to 
assume the responsibility of the work in the classroom. 

1 During the period spent in the practice schools. 


As far as possible, the work in English is associated with that 
in other branches, and the student is made to feel the importance 
of a skilful use of language both in speech and in writing. 
Those who are especially deficient in knowledge or in practice 
are expected to give the subject extra attention. 

In the second year the teaching of English is considered. 
Good books on the subject are read by the class, for the purpose 
of gaining a high ideal and inspiration for the work. A course 
of study in general language work is suggested, to be used as a 
basis for class discussion and as a guide for individual work in 
planning different types of lessons. The best order of topics in 
grammar is considered, and exercises are planned and given. 

The observation of the work in the practice school serves to 
emphasize and illustrate points discussed. 


Miss Peet. 

That the work in literature may have direct bearing profes- 
sionally and some freshness of approach, the courses begin with 
a study of children's literature in the junior year, supplemented 
with work in general literature for point of view and personal 
culture. This is followed in the senior year by further investiga- 
tions in the field of general literature. 

The course in children's literature covers four periods a week 
during half the junior year. It embraces (1) studies in poems, 
hero tales, classic legends, realistic stories, studies in humor, and 
recreational and home reading for children; (2) brief studies in 
the sources of children's literature, — old world literature, Amer- 
ican poets and writers; and (3) aims and methods of teaching 

"With studies in children's literature as a basis the students 
work first for power not only to see the beauty in literature but 
to interpret it to their classmates. With some accomplishment in 
this, and with the observation of work with children as a back- 
ground, the students work next for power ( 1 ) to get thought from 
others by questioning and other methods of arousing a discussion ; 
(2) to teach the meaning of an unfamiliar vocabulary; (3) to 
inspire good reading; and (4) to get such composition work as is 
a natural outgrowth of the study of a selection in literature. 


This work for teaching power is followed by a survey of the fields 
of literature from which selections may be made with a study of 
the development of children through literature. In this work 
special attention is paid to the possibilities of the subject as a 
means for moral and aesthetic culture ; the relation of the school 
to a child's home and recreational reading; and, lastly, the influ- 
ence of the school festival and other entertainments. 

As the most economical approach in the senior year to the 
broad field which a general course in literature must cover, the 
work is classified by literary forms. The work covers studies in 
ballad literature, folk and modern; the evolution of the lyric from 
Elizabethan times to those of Tennyson, inclusive of the song, 
sonnet, ode and idyl ; and brief studies in the drama, novel, short 
stor}^ and the essay. In these studies, since one great interest 
in literature is the revelation of personality, attention is given 
to the lives and thoughts of the most famous masters. 

The course covers one period a week. The method of work is 
largely that of individual research work by the students with class 
reports and occasional talks and lectures. 


Miss Rogers. 

Junior Year. — The work for the greater part of this year 
aims to awaken interest in oral reading, and an appreciation of 
the student's present and future need of power in this direction. 
To this end oral reading is practised, and the study of phonetics 
begins incidentally with the effort to correct individual faults in 
pronunciation and articulation. The selections read are mainly 
those that may be used in the grades. Some are masterpieces 
of literature, others are taken from current magazines and news- 
papers, while others are simple stories and poems for very young 

The latter part of the year is devoted to the method of teaching 
reading which is in use in the practice school. Some knowledge 
of phonetics, and practice in story-telling and dramatization, are 
given in this connection. 

Senior Year. — This course deals with methods of teaching 
reading and literature in the grades, with special emphasis on 
the work of the first years. The work with methods of teaching 


Teachers now in the service who are intending to enter the 
school to take a year's special work should make a thorough 
study of James's Briefer Course in Psychology, Halleck's Psy- 
chology and Psychic Culture, or some other book of equal scope. 

History of Education. 

Miss Deaxe. 
The course in history of education is included in the senior 
year. The plan of study follows two lines of development: (1) 
the analysis of the historical evolution of the educational system, 
tracing the great movements in their related order ; and ( 2 ) the 
study of the lives of leaders of educational progress, particularly 
those of the modern era. Throughout the course the inter-rela- 
tion of educational, religious and political conditions is made 
manifest as a basis for understanding national educational ideals 
and standards. In tracing the evolution of the present school 
system especial prominence is given to four topics, the purpose 
of education, the character of the curriculum, the degree of 
recognition of individualism, the development of the school as 
an institution. The course serves particularly to foster an appre- 
ciation of teaching as a profession. 

Child Study. 

Miss Paine. 

The course in child study is carried on with the seniors during 
their nine weeks of practice teaching. The aim of this course is 
to study the physical and psychological child as he is found in 
the average public school. 

The distinctive characteristics of the immature human being, 
as contrasted with the adult, are considered, emphasizing espe- 
cially those characteristics found in the average school child from 
five to fourteen years of age. An attempt is made to understand, 
somewhat, the effects of growth and development, and of nature 
and nurture, in order to interpret ordinary schoolroom pro- 
cedure. For this purpose the attention of the students is focused 
upon the children of the practice school with whom they are 
actually dealing. Observations are made of the special defects, 
the interests, habits and activities of the children of the various 
grades. These observations are supplemented by material de- 



Miss Goldsmith. 
The course in psychology extends throughout the junior year 
and makes the foundation for the work in pedagogy and child 
study of the senior year. The aim is to secure a clear under- 
standing of the fundamental laws which govern mental activity, 
as well as to develop a larger sympathy with human life as a 
whole and an appreciation of the conditions existing in imma- 
ture minds. Careful attention is given to the processes by means 
of which knowledge is acquired and elaborated, the sources of 
knowledge, both general and psychological, and the function and 
development of the mental faculties. The subjects of habit and 
reflex action, perception, conception, memory, imagination, imita- 
tion, instinct, judgment and reasoning, emotion and volition are 
made of special importance. Since the work is intended to be of 
practical value rather than of merely theoretical interest, illus- 
trations from the daily life of the student and from observation 
of child life, also applications to teaching, are demanded through- 
out the course. 


Mr. Pitman. 

The course in pedagogy extends throughout the senior year. 
Its chief aim is to develop an understanding of the principles of 
education as derived from the study of psychology in the junior 
year, and of their application to school organization and govern- 
ment and to the art of teaching. The course comprises a study 
of the various educational agencies; of the educational values of 
the several subjects of instruction, and of their interrelations; 
of school organization and management; of the physical condi- 
tions of the school; and of the hygiene of the schoolroom. The 
work in the model schools is done in connection with this course, 
and the observations and experiences of the students are drawn 
upon extensively to illustrate the classroom discussions. 

A portion of the course is also devoted to a consideration of 
the historical development and the characteristic features of 
the Massachusetts school system, and a sufficient knowledge 
of the school laws is imparted to make the students familiar with 
the rights and duties of teachers. 


The elements of civil government are considered from the 
standpoint of their actual operation rather than from that of 
theory, thus necessitating attention to current political events. 
Book study of the principles of government must be supple- 
mented by familiarity with concrete examples. 


Miss Peet. 

There is an arithmetic of books and one of actual concrete 
situations in life. When the first is taught to the exclusion of 
the latter, the pupil has but a poor incentive for the study, and 
gains but little ability in the application of his knowledge. To 
avoid the narrowness of such a training the arithmetic is brought 
into contact with the activities of the student. It is based upon 
manual training, nature study, geography, and other interests 
of the school, home and community life. The work with the 
training class covers the senior }^ear. During the first half of the 
year the class reviews advanced arithmetic and develops methods 
of teaching it. Books are used for reference, but the endeavor 
here, as elsewhere, is to find the arithmetic of the actual office, 
shop and home. During the second half of the year the class 
discusses the principles underlying the number work of the pri- 
mary school and works out their application through teaching 


Miss Martin. 
The course includes study of form and study of number. It 
aims on the one hand to unify, and on the other to individualize 
and classify, the knowledge which students bring from their pre- 
vious study. Practical application of geometrical truth is made 
in field work and in the mensuration of the common plane figures 
and solids. The study of number is from the algebraic point of 
view. Processes are investigated and explained with reference 
to practical teaching. The quantity of work done is determined 
largely by the amount and quality of preparation and the indi- 
vidual needs of the students, and thus may naturally vary from 
year to year. 


reading, begun in the junior year, is continued, and story-telling 
and dramatization in relation to children's literature are con- 

Middle Tear. — During this year students who devote three 
years to the elementary course have work in reading which aims 
to supplement the work of the junior year, thus giving a broader 
preparation for the practice work of the senior year. 

Elementary Latin. 

Miss Martin. 

The class is organized for the consideration of methods of 
teaching first-year Latin. It is open to special students, and to 
students of the second or third year whose standing warrants the 
undertaking of an additional subject. 

The general purpose of Latin study and the results to be 
secured in first-year work are considered, and the means of 
attaining these results discussed. Leading text-books for begin- 
ners are examined, and enough lessons developed to give an intel- 
ligent appreciation of the author's plan and method. As the 
work of the teacher of elementary Latin is largely of the nature 
of drill, discussion and illustration of modes of drill receive a 
large share of attention. 

The finest result in the teaching of a foreign language is the 
development of a feeling for that language. It is with this end 
in view that the teacher gives his first lesson, and the end is the 
constant inspiration of his method. 

United States History. 

Miss Deaxe. 
The study of United States history is included in the second 
year of the course. The work is planned with two general aims 
in view: (1) the review and establishment of the essential facts 
and principles of American and allied English history, treated 
from the academic standpoint; and (2) the consideration of the 
material in its adaptation to the elementary school. Effort is 
made to broaden the student's acquaintance with authoritative 
historical works and to aid him in the selection and handling of 
material. To this end, special presentations of topics requiring 
research have an important place in the plan of study. 











rived from the students' own personal experiences, and from their 
intimate knowledge of children found in other localities. 

An analysis of the conditions in the practice school that tend 
to promote, regulate or supplant the natural tendencies of the 
children is made, and a comparison with other schoolroom condi- 
tions within the experience of the students is constantly encour- 
aged, in the endeavor to discover the best conditions for bringing 
about the most desirable results. 

As can be seen, therefore, throughout the course the laws of 
psychology and the principles of pedagogy are constantly being 
analyzed out of and applied to ordinary schoolroom situations. 
Also, a close observation of all schoolroom procedure must be 
maintained in order to more intelligently appreciate its purpose 
in modifying the physical and psychological development of the 
average public school child. 

The two general text-books used — Eowe's The Physical Na- 
ture of the Child and Kirkpatrick's Fundamentals of Child Study 
— are supplemented by readings from various other authoritative 
writers. Reports of independent observations and criticisms are 
passed in weekly. 

For the students who are preparing to teach the two upper 
grades in the grammar schools it is proposed to give a more inten- 
sive study of the adolescent boy and girl than is possible or neces- 
sary for the students of the regular two years' course. 

Kindergarten Methods. 

Miss Noyes. 

This course does not train students for kindergarten teaching. 
It is given to the entire senior class, and aims to acquaint them 
with the methods and materials of the kindergarten, and its 
function as a foundation and preparation for the primary school. 
It gives them a practical understanding of the kindergarten, 
emphasis being placed upon its necessarily close relationship to 
and connection with the first grade. The importance of this 
formative period of the child's life, and Froebel's means for 
successfully developing the child through his own self-activity, 
are dwelt upon. 

The following are the subjects considered : — 

Biography of Froebel, the founder of the kindergarten, followed by 
a study of his principles as contained in The Education of Man, 
and Mutter und Kose Lieder. 

Nature work as adapted to children of kindergarten age. 

Play as an educational factor. 

Songs and games. 

The gifts and occupations. 

Story telling. 

Constant opportunity is given the students for carefully super- 
vised observation and practice in the kindergartens as well as 
in the first grades of the practice school, so that theory may at 
once be made practical. 

Biological Science. 

Miss Goldsmith. 
This course extends throughout the junior year and is planned 
to give a basis for the comprehensive understanding of human 
physiology and nature study, both of which courses follow in the 
senior year. The aim is to lead the student to as clear an under- 
standing as possible in the time allowed of the gradual evolution 
and increasing complexity of plant and animal life, and to appre- 
ciate such great principles as heredity, adaptation to environ- 
ment, the struggle for existence and protection. Types of plants 
and animals (e.g., the dandelion, corn, maple tree, starfish, crab, 
fish) form the basis for class discussion, laboratory work, recita- 
tion and economic problems. The students also work out the 
problem of adapting these forms to work with the children. As 
much field work is done as time permits, and the collection at 
the Peabody Academy of Science affords an unusual opportunity 
for the study of typical animal forms. Through this we hope to 
arouse in the students a love and appreciation of all living things, 
a desire for a more intimate knowledge of their surroundings, and 
a reverently questioning attitude which shall lead to keen obser- 
vation and careful thinking. 


Physical Science. 

The aims of the work in physical science are : to stimulate and 
foster interest in the science of common things; to provide a 
fund of useful knowledge about everyday science; and to develop 
the power of accurate observation, clear thinking and correct 
expression which are essential to direct others in the study of 

The class-room work includes demonstrations, informal 
lectures, reports of special topics and discussion. A large part 
of the class-room time is used by the students in presenting 
special topics before the class. About one-third of the time 
is allotted to individual laboratory work. The object of this 
work is to give the student sufficient skill in manipulation of 
apparatus to be able to demonstrate successfully before a class, 
and to give more intimate knowledge of the substances, 
processes and principles which are discussed in the class-room. 
Ample laboratory facilities are provided for independent work 
by the students. 

The following are the courses offered in physical science : — 

A. Physics. — For students who enter without satisfactory 
preparation in physics. First half year. Twice a week. A 
general introduction to physical science, covering the funda- 
mental principles. 

B. 'Chemistry, — ■ For students who enter without satis- 
factory preparation in chemistry. Second half year. Twice a 
week. A brief elementary course in chemistry, providing a foun- 
dation for the chemical work of the course in applied physical 

(1) Applied Physical Science. — Required of students of both 
the two-} r ear course and the three-year course. One year. Two 
hours a week. The student is required to have an elementary 
knowledge of physics and chemistry before entering this course. 
This course includes many subjects which are important because 
they are closely related to every-day life. Consideration is given 
to science questions of the home, public utilities, manufactures, 
trades and arts. The course aims to give the student a broad 
outlook over the field of physical science and an insight into ways 
in which science is useful to man. Excursions are planned to 


show the applications of physics and chemistry in commer- 
cial use. 

(2) Methods. — Eequired of students of the three-year 
course. One year. Three times a week. The aim of the course 
is to prepare the student to teach physical science in the gram- 
mar grades. Practice is given in devising lessons. Model les- 
sons are presented and discussed in class. Some observation of 
science teaching in grammar grades is afforded. To increase 
skill in demonstrating with apparatus, some work in the lab- 
oratory is offered. The course covers the subject-matter of 
physics and chemistry which is appropriate to the grammar 
school pupil, and in addition gives to the normal school student 
a broader treatment of the subject-matter than will be required 
for use in teaching. 


Mr. Cushixg — Mr. Whitman. 

The course in physiography is made to include enough of 
astronomy for the student to gain a clear notion of the relation 
of the earth to the other members of the solar system and the 
universe; of mineralogy, to interpret the physiographic history 
of parts of the earth from the study of bed rocks; of historical 
geology, to appreciate that the earth, with its animal and vege- 
table life, is an evolving organism, and that the present condi- 
tions show one stage of that evolution ; of physical geography, to 
understand the typical processes affecting the earth's surface and 
the resulting land forms. The object of the course, other than 
general culture, is to build up the background for the earth 
sciences that are taught in the elementary schools. It is made 
preparatory to the course in geography that follows the next year. 

Field trips and laboratory work take an important part in 
this work. The immediate surroundings offer diversified ma- 
terial for field work. The school is well equipped with a large 
astronomical telescope, with individual and exhibition rock and 
mineral specimens, and a museum of selected fossils. 



Mr. Cushing. 

In this course the fundamental principles of the science are 
evolved from the study of the home locality, so that the under- 
standing of the mutual relations of man and his environment 
becomes observational knowledge. The method of instruction is 
such as to tend to develop the reasoning power of the student as 
the facts of geography are studied. 

Much time is spent in interpreting the materials found in text- 
books on the subject in elementary schools, in map reading, in 
the use of diagrams, models, pictures, specimens and the other 
geographic helps. 

An intensive study of the pedagogy of geography occupies a 
period near the end of the course, after the students have gained 
abundant illustrative material and experience in the previous 
work of the class and in the practice school. The place of geog- 
raphy in the school curriculum is justified and the part it plays 
in reaching the ends of education is defined. A graded course 
of study is worked out on this basis. 

The school possesses special advantages for geographic study. 
Salem has diversified land forms which determine varied indus- 
trial activities. An excellent harbor and near by rivers show well 
their influence over human activities. A geography garden is de- 
veloped in the spring by the normal and practice school pupils. 
The department has one of the best geography museums in the 

Nature Study. 

Miss Warren. 

The aim in this course is to give the student the training 
needed to teach nature study and related subjects in the elemen- 
tary schools. 

From the study of biological and physical science in the 
junior year many important facts have been learned of which 
practical use can be made in adapting the work. 

In developing a course for the six lower grades, the student 
should understand the child's point of view and should keep 
clearly in mind the aim of the work, viz., that he is to encourage 
an increasing spirit of inquiry, a closer observation, a greater 


familiarity with the habits and uses of plants and animals, a 
desire to know how to care for them, and an appreciation of the 
inter-relation of all nature. 

In the fall the lower grade work begins with the care and 
study of some animal pet. 

Talks on primitive man, his shelter, food and clothing, and 
his dependence upon the world about him, lead to an under- 
standing of the means man is using to comprehend and subdue 
nature's forces that he may utilize them for the good of man- 

The recognition of trees and lessons on their use and care 
afford a background for discussions on forestry in the higher 

The school garden not only furnishes material for the study 
of plant and animal life, but is also considered from the aesthetic 
and economic standpoint. 

In the spring a study of soils, of the couditions necessary for 
germination and experiments with seeds planted in shallow 
boxes filled with various kinds of soil, is followed with practice 
in thinning, transplanting, weeding, and by the care of growing 

Correlation with drawing and arithmetic is made whenever 
it is practicable. 

Those students who are to specialize for upper grade work 
should be able to train the child so that he may have a broader 
knowledge of the subject-matter, a growing appreciation of eco- 
nomic questions and of the inviolability of nature's laws, greater 
independence in observation and inference and clearer concep- 
tions of exact statements. The application of the principles of 
physical science, which are too difficult to be understood in the 
lower grades, should occupy an important place. 

The School Gardens. 

Miss Warren — Mr. Rand. 
Three gardens are conducted by the school; one of them. 
which occupies a part of the school grounds, is worked on the 
individual basis. This offers to each student an opportunity 
not only to plant a small plot of her own and care for it, but 
also to supervise the work of children from the practice school. 











Thus they learn to make practical the ideas they have gained 
concerning plant life, and will be able to establish gardens in 
schools where they may teach. 

Another garden, comprising half an acre, located on West 
Avenue, a short distance from the school, is worked on the com- 
munity basis, and is planted entirely to vegetables, which are 
sold to families living in the vicinity of the school and to the 
markets. This garden is planted, cared for and the products 
of it harvested by boys of the seventh and eighth grades. 
"When the garden is planted the boys are in the seventh grade; 
when the products are gathered and sold they are in the eighth 
grade. The boys are given a share in the profits, apportioned 
among them according to efforts they have made in working the 
garden. The third garden is conducted by the students in con- 
nection with their course in geography, and is devoted to grains 
and grasses. 

The work of the individual garden is under the supervision 
of Miss Warren and the teachers of the practice school, the com- 
munity garden is supervised by Mr. Eand, while the geograph- 
ical garden is conducted by the students under the direction of 
Mr. Cushing. 

The work in the garden is a means toward an end. The 
teachers have an opportunity to make nature study practical, 
and to encourage the children to have gardens of their own, in 
order that they may have interests at home. They promote a 
spirit of co-operation and helpfulness among the children, loy- 
alty to the school in making the whole garden attractive, and 
generosity in contributing a portion of their produce to hospi- 

The garden furnishes material for work in the schoolroom. 
In arithmetic, there are practical problems of expenditure of 
money for material and labor and of income from products 
raised, and measurements to be made in planning and laying 
out the garden. In language, subjects for composition and dis- 
cussion are presented in the preparation for the outdoor work, 
and as a result of experience gained in the garden. In manual 
training, there are problems to work out, such as tools, frames 
to support vines, cold frames, etc. Knowledge of moisture, 
soils, relation of plants and animals, food products, forms a 


basis for practical geography. There are plans of the garden 
to be drawn, vegetables in different stages and flowers for the 
study of form and color, flowers to be arranged artistically in 
vases, effective arrangement of flowers in the garden to be con- 
sidered. By thus grouping much of the indoor work in the 
spring about the garden, the teacher makes the garden a natural 
center from which other lines of work radiate. 

Physiology and Hygiene. 

Miss Warren. 

The purpose of the study of physiology and hygiene is two- 
fold ; to aid the student in forming right habits of living and to 
furnish accurate knowledge of principles and facts to be taught 
to children. 

Emphasis is placed upon the knowledge of the danger to the 
child arising from adenoid growths, enlarged tonsils, neglected 
colds, decaying teeth, defective eyesight, bad ventilation, the use 
of public drinking cups and towels, malnutrition and nervous 

Students who are fitting themselves to work in the six lower 
grades of the public schools should prepare teaching exercises 
adapted to those grades on the needs of daily life; as eating, 
drinking, breathing, sleeping, playing, working, resting, bathing 
and clothing. Personal hygiene, school and home sanitation, 
and emergency lessons receive due consideration. 

Those students who are to instruct the pupils of the upper 
grades should understand the fundamental importance of vital 
functions and the harmon} 7 between structure and function. 
Work with the compound microscope and discussions of the re- 
lation of the cells to the various physiological processes result in 
clearer ideas of the body as a physical organism. Knowledge 
of the nutritive, economic and physiological value of foods, of 
the action and effect of condiments, stimulants and narcotics, 
is important. The characteristics of bacteria, their presence in 
milk, food and water, and their relation to disease, are con- 
sidered. Special stress is laid upon personal hygiene and public 






Physical Training. 

Miss Warren — Miss Eogers. 

In the work of physical training the Swedish system of gym- 
nastics is employed. Physical exercise has a two-fold purpose; 
it invigorates the body and it relieves mental tension. 

The floor work includes all the fundamental positions of the 
body, as bending, twisting, jumping, running and marching. It 
is supplemented by the use of apparatus, which gives added in- 
terest and enthusiasm to the work, and a greater opportunity 
for muscular development. The gymnasium is provided with 
stall bars and benches, double booms, jumping standards, verti- 
cal ropes, a Swedish ladder and a horse. The work is varied 
occasionally by gymnastic games, which are calculated to de- 
velop self-control, precision, dexterity and concerted action. 
Rhythmic movement is a strong feature of the work. During 
the senior year opportunities are given the students for con- 
ducting gymnastic exercises as practice in teaching. 

Association in the gymnasium promotes a social spirit, which 
serves as a bond of union, and tends to give a healthy impetus 
to the fulfilling of the requirements in other departments of 
study. The aim of the work is not only to help the student to 
gain a more intelligent mastery of the body, but also to train 
the mental and moral faculties. 

The vitality and usefulness of the human body are also fur- 
thered by correct carriage, proper breathing and regular bodily 
exercise. Whatever, therefore, conduces to develop the chest, 
straighten the spine, purify the blood and distribute it to the 
various organs, and to improve the personal appearance gen- 
erally, is a matter of vital importance. 

We cannot too strongly emphasize the fact that a sound mind 
in a sound body is a prime requisite for success and effectiveness 
in any department of life. 

Manual Arts, 

Mr. Whitxey. 

The manual arts are among the most important and definite 
processes in education, the outward visible expression of the 
inner thought, conception or experience. They bring to the in- 
dividual new and varied experiences and at the same time stim- 


ulate thought; the mind broadens, and the individual expresses 
himself spontaneously. 

The teacher is frequently asked, "What are the aims or the 
results to be obtained through the study of the manual arts ? ;; 
Some of the answers are found in the following statements : — 

It gives command of the one universal language. 

It cultivates accuracy of observation. 

It develops appreciation of the beautiful. 

It gives power to express beauty. 

It develops skill of hand and eye. 

It encourages originality. 

It promotes appreciation of excellence in manufactured ar- 

It increases the value of our industrial products. 

It helps to establish good habits of thought and action. 

It awakens an interest in the mind of the child when other 
studies fail. 

It is indispensable in many other studies. 

It gives to many a. means of livelihood. 

The manual arts is a broad term, and includes the topics 
found in the following outline : — 

Eepresentation : line, mass, color. 

Composition: line, area, color. 

Construction : material, use of tools, motif. 

Representation. — This topic covers such work as nature 
drawing, object drawing in all its phases, freehand paper cut- 
ting, modeling and illustrative sketching, and involves the use 
of pencil, pen and ink, crayon, chalk, water colors, etc., as the 
mediums for expression. 

Composition. — Composition is a term used in its broad sense, 
and bears upon original arrangements and design. It also in- 
cludes the theory of color and the application of color har- 
monies. Here again a choice of the most appropriate medium 
must be considered. 

Construction. — The work in construction comprises both the 
above-mentioned subjects and their application in the making of 
things. Objects for various purposes are discussed, their fitness 
is considered, freehand sketches are made, as well as the neces- 
sary mechanical drawings, compositions in line, area and color 








i— * 






are planned, and the result of these problems is the finished 
product. Such projects involve many other studies, for the 
pupil must know something of the material he is using, its 
source and manufacture; he must understand something of the 
type of wood, metal, leather, fabric, reed, raffia, cardboard and 
other material, and of the tools and appliances necessary in the 
handling of such. 

The brief outline suggested above includes the work of both 
the normal and the practice schools, and is varied to meet the 
demands of the different grades. 

It is the constant effort of the department to make itself 
helpful in meeting the problems of school life, and to comple- 
ment the work of the other departments. Each year there is 
given a course of lessons in free blackboard sketching, which is 
a very important accomplishment for the grade teacher. Such 
work awakens interest, holds the attention, and cultivates a 
desire on the part of the child to express himself in the same 
free and spontaneous manner. 

Occasional lectures are given by the State supervisor of draw- 
ing and others upon important subjects influencing the manual 
arts in the public schools, and upon more general topics in art. 
These lectures have a decided influence upon the pupils, and 
create an interest in many lines of art study and industrial train- 
ing. To these is added a short course on the history of art, deal- 
ing with the various schools of architecture, sculpture and 
painting from Egypt to the Eenaissance. When possible, visits 
to the Museum of Fine Arts are made for study and review. 

Each student is required to observe the work of the super- 
visor and of the teachers in the grades of the practice school, 
to present illustrated reports on these observations, and to give 
lessons in this work under supervision and criticism. Outlines 
of work for the grades in the practice school are arranged from 
month to month, and the normal school pupils observe their ap- 
plication in the work with children. Students who complete 
the course should be able to plan and arrange adequate outlines 
of work for use in their own teaching, or to follow intelligently 
the outline of a supervisor. 



Mr. Archibald. 

The work in this department is designed to enable students 
to teach such principles of music as will apply to instruction in 
this subject in the several grades of the public schools. 

Voice culture, song interpretation, ear training and sight 
reading, introducing the various problems of time and tune, are 
taught. The exemplification of these subjects is observed in 
the model schools, and practice in these lines is afforded the 
student under the guidance of the regular grade teachers. 

One period weekly is given to general exercises in music, 
when the following subjects are considered : — 

(a) The principles of conducting, as applied to chorus sing- 
ing and general school work; also practice in the same. 

(b) Musical appreciation through listening to good music 
performed by the students and by professional artists, and also 
through the use of a piano player. 

(c) Chorus singing in preparation for the graduation exer- 
cises. . 

A good library of pianola rolls is at the disposal of the 
students, and much laboratory work in music is accomplished. 

A glee club, selected by competition, rehearses weekly, sings 
at various entertainments of the school, and gives an annual 
concert. An orchestra of stringed instruments is also one of 
the musical activities of the school. 

Tickets for the concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
and the Boston Opera Company are obtained for students upon 


Mr. Doner. 
Penmanship is taught during both the junior and the senior 
years. One period each week is devoted to practice under the 
personal direction of the supervisor, for the purpose of devel- 
oping a plain, practical style of writing. Students are required 
to practice at least fifteen minutes a day, and to submit their 
practice work to the supervisor for inspection, criticism and 


In the junior year the object of the work is to lay a thorough 
foundation in position, penholding and movement; also to drill 
in word, figure, sentence and paragraph writing. In the senior 
year the object of the work is to improve the general quality 
of the writing and develop speed, so that the students will be 
able to write automatically a smooth, plain, practical hand. 
Students will be able to write well if they conscientiously try 
to apply the movement in all their written work. Since writing 
is essentially a co-ordinated movement, it has to be developed 
through patient and persistent practice. The seniors are also 
given blackboard practice, practice in counting, and in teaching 
lessons before their own classes. The seniors have ample oppor- 
tunity to observe the teaching done by the supervisor and the 
regular teachers in the practice school. During the senior year 
the supervisor outlines a scheme for each grade, so that the 
students will have a knowledge of the theory of teaching the 
subject of penmanship in all the grades in the public school. 

A teacher cannot teach what she does not know. Therefore, 
the purpose in this department is to give the students a practical 
working knowledge of the subject of penmanship, so that they 
will be able to write well themselves and in turn teach others 
to write well. Theory and practice go hand in hand, but the 
students are given so much of the practical side that the theory 
becomes a reality. 

Entrance Requirements. 

The requirements for admission to the prescribed course of 
three years will be the same as for students who apply for ad- 
mission to the elementary course, except that graduates of 
commercial courses in approved high schools will also be eligible. 
The latter may choose, from the subjects classified below under 
Group VI., substitutes for those required under Groups II.-V. 
(see page 13). Certificates will be accepted in lieu of examina- 
tion in those subjects in which candidates have attained a rank 
of not less than B, or eighty per cent., and examinations will be 
given in other subjects. Students who complete this course will 
receive special diplomas. 


A condensed course of one or two years will be offered to 
graduates of colleges, normal schools and private commercial 
schools, and to teachers of experience. Appropriate certificates 
will be awarded to special students who complete approved 
courses of study. 

Group VI. — Commercial Subjects. 

(a) Bookkeeping. — Ability to open and close a set of books 
by single or double entry, to change from single to double entry, 
to explain and illustrate the use of the different books. 

(b and c) Shorthand and Typewriting. — Mastery of the 
principles of Pitmanic shorthand and their application, and of 
the word-signs and contractions of the particular system studied. 
Transcription on the typewriter of dictated material, to test 
accuracy in reading shorthand notes. Much importance is at- 
tached to correct spelling, capitalizing and paragraphing, and 
to skill in arranging typewritten material on a page. 

A similar examination in Gregg shorthand will be given for 
those who wish to offer this instead of a Pitmanic system. 

(d) Commercial Arithmetic. — Computations relating to ex- 
tending and footing bills; percentage, including interest, dis- 
count, partial payments, commission and brokerage; partnership 
settlements; etc. 

(e) Commercial Law. — Knowledge of such phases of law as 
contracts, negotiable paper, agency bailments, partnership, cor- 
porations and insurance. Ability to draw up approved legal 
forms such as powers-of-attorneys, checks, and notes. 

(/) Commercial Geography. — A knowledge of principles that 
control the production, distribution and consumption of com- 
modities, gained from a study of the local environment and a 
standard text, will fit the candidate for this examination. 

The Course of Study. 

Junior Year. 

Hours per Week. 

English, 2 

Shorthand, . 4 

Typewriting, 5 

General history, 2 

Physiography, 2 


Commercial arithmetic. 
Elementary bookkeeping. 
Penmanship, } 


M is 


half vear each. 


half vear each. 

Middle Year. 

English. ....... 


Commercial correspondence. 



American history and er 

Industrial physics. 

Industrial chemistry. 

General geography. . ^ 

Commercial geography. ( 




Music. .... 

half vear each. 

half vear each. 

B n'ior Year. 

Literature, ...... 

Shorthand. ..... 

Typewriting. ..... 

History of commerce. 

Commercial law. ) . _. 

^ V hall vear each. 

Economics. . ^ 

Industrial geography. 

Penmanship. ..... 

Advanced bookkeeping. 


(Observation and practice teaching 

Gymnastics. ..... 

Music. ...... 





Miss Leaeoyd. 

The course is planned for two years. It is intended to give 
the students a thorough knowledge of the language as far as 
it may be obtained by consulting reference books on the sub- 
ject and b}~ reading literature, and to offer systematic training 
in expression in speech and writing. At first, the aim will be 
to ascertain the needs of the individual, and to establish habits 
of accuracy and of systematic methods of work. Exercises in 
spelling, definition, dictation, taking notes from dictation and 
letter writing, including the phraseology of business English, 
will receive attention in proportion to the needs of the class. 
A detailed study of words, the sentence, the paragraph and the 
whole composition will form the basis of most of the work of 
this year. Frequent opportunity will be afforded to students 
to write short daily themes and occasional long themes, to plan 
talks efficiently and to gain ease in speaking before the class. 

During the second year an effort will be made to arouse the 
students to an interest in the best works of modern literature. 
The reading and discussion will be concerned chiefly with sub- 
jects involving description and explanation. Exercises for culti- 
vating accuracy and fluency will be continued. Themes will 
include the results of extended study on some topic connected 
with trade and -industry; review and criticism of commercial 
text-books. There will be an opportunity for the students to test 
their power of presenting subjects clearly to the class and of 
directing the work of the class room, and to acquire skill in 
careful and just criticism. 

It is hoped that the result of the work of the two years will 
be to give confidence and power in clear and easy expression 
both in speech and writing. 

Commercial Correspondence. 

Miss Learoyd. 

Two hours a week for a half year are devoted to the study of 

forms of business correspondence and to practice in the writing 

of business letters. It is desirable to establish high aims in the 

form of the business letter, and clearness and ease in expression, 


and at the same time to make the subject practical. On the 
professional side the importance of the study to high school 
classes is considered and methods and text-books are discussed. 
Some of the clerical work of the school furnishes additional 


The course in English literature is mainly cultural. It aims 
to give an appreciation of literature in an intimate relation with 
our modern social and economic point of view; and to develop, 
as far as a single course can hope to, the breadth of view essential 
for every teacher. In the literature covered special emphasis is 
laid upon the evolution of the periodical and the essay. The 
first covers the ground from the Spectator to the Century and 
the Atlantic; and the second includes such essayists as Lamb, 
Macauley, Carlyle, Emerson, Arnold, Warner, and Stevenson. 
Further than the work on periodicals and the essay, the course 
consists of a brief study of the novel and the short story and a 
more extensive study of the poets of the nineteenth century, — 
Tennyson, Browning, Arnold, Morris, Clough and Swinburne. 


Miss Deane. 

The chief aim of the courses in history is the comprehension 
of present economic and political conditions as revealed through 
the study of their development. To this end the work is arranged 
in three courses, for successive years, including general history, 
American history and civics, and the history of commerce. Thus, 
the background is furnished, by the preliminary survey of general 
history, for the more intensive study of the principles of in- 
dustrial evolution treated in the fields of American history and 
the history of commerce. The courses aim to acquaint students 
with the best available sources, and to develop their power in 
handling material independently. Provision is made for close 
connection between this department and the related subjects of 
industrial geography and economics. 



Mr. Gushing. 

During the first year the work in physiography aims to con- 
struct a broad basis for understanding commercial geography. 
The nature of climate and land forms and their influences on 
man are made the principal objects of study. Some regional 
geography is taught. 

Economic geography is taught the second year. It is re- 
garded as the meeting ground of geography and economics. The 
course is based upon the work in geography of the preceding 
year, in which is emphasized, more particularly, the study of 
those forces -in nature which are working on man and so influenc- 
ing his activities. An equal emphasis is now placed upon man's 
reaction to his environment, and those principles of economics 
are derived which help to explain the production, exchange, dis- 
tribution and consumption of goods. The laboratories of this 
course are : local industrial establishments, the freight house, 
yard and cars, local docks and freighters. 

Abundant concrete illustrative material is exhibited in the in- 
dustrial and commercial museum, which is one of the new fea- 
tures of the department. In it are shown the raw materials 
of commerce. Many business houses have contributed to this, 
so that the various stages of production to the finished products 
of commerce, in many lines, are exhibited. Pictures and stereo- 
scopic views help to clarify the subject. United States consular 
reports, census, statistical and other government reports, news- 
papers, market quotations, magazines and the modern texts, 
such as Eedway's and Chisholm's, are used as sources of facts, 
from which principles are derived and illustrated. 

An advanced course, entitled industrial geography, is offered 
for the third year. This is founded on observational work with 
the tanning and shoe industry of Salem and Peabody, and leads 
to the study of the history and organization of industries as 
influenced by geographic conditions. It concludes with an 
intensive study of the resources, industries, markets and trans- 
portation in the United States, and the industrial personality 
of nations. 


Physics and Chemistry. 

Mr. Whitman. 

This course includes the more important principles of physics 
and chemistry, and aims to make the student familiar with many 
of the common scientific terms, chemical materials and opera- 
tions which are likely to be met in commercial work. The course 
consists chiefly of class-room talks, demonstrations, and discus- 
sions about the applications of physics and chemistry in com- 
mercial and industrial operations. Some individual laboratory 
work will be given. There will be opportunity to study applied 
physics and chemistry in their relation to local industries. A 
number of industrial plants will be visited by the class. 


Mr. Pitman. 

Pedagogy is a prescribed subject for all students in the com- 
mercial department. In addition to the essential features of 
the regular elementary course it includes a consideration of 
many of the problems of the secondary school, and particular 
attention is given to the pedagogical aspects of commercial 
education. (See description of course in Pedagog} T , p. 25.) 

Teachers now in the service and other prospective students 
who have not pursued a course in psychology and who are in- 
tending to take a special course in this department should make 
a thorough study of James's Briefer Course in Psychology, Hal- 
leck's Psychology and Psychic Culture, or some other book of 
equal scope. 

The History of Commerce. 

Mr. Meredith. 

This course is designed to add to the general information of 
the student by giving a knowledge of the commerce of the past 
and showing its relation to the development of present and 
probable future conditions. 

The laboratory method of teaching this subject is used. 
Students are required to obtain their information from various 
sources, such as magazines, newspapers and recently published 


In pursuing this course emphasis is placed upon the history 
and development of local industries, and students are required 
to make visits to business houses and manufacturing plants of 
various kinds. Each student is obliged to make an independent 
written study of some one of these local industries. 


Mr. Meredith. 

Economic phenomena are at present much more definite and 
numerous than in the early times, when communities were 
equipped for war rather than for industry. The aim of this 
course is to provide- the student with a thorough knowledge of 
the intricacies of the social system by which he is environed, and 
the best methods of interesting younger pupils in the practical 
problems of modern community life. The value of this course 
is also increased by a study of the application of economic prin- 
ciples to current civic problems and legislation concerning them. 

In this connection students are required to make an intensive 
study of some phase of social economics, and at the end of the 
course to present the results of their research in the form of a 
comprehensive thesis. 

An extensive outside reading course is being conducted as a 
part of this work. By means of a card designed for the pur- 
pose an accurate account of each student's reading is kept on 
file, together with her criticism of the work read. 

A suitable library, containing works relating to the subject 
of economics, is at the disposal of the students. 

Commercial Law. 

Mr. Meredith. 

The whole scheme of commercial activity is regulated and 
controlled by the laws of business, and the character and in- 
tegrity of business conduct are defined by these laws. The aim 
of this course is to give the student a knowledge of the essentials 
of commercial law, and to develop the best methods for . im- 
parting this knowledge to others. The work of the text-book 
is supplemented by real or hypothetical " cases," in which the 
law principles learned are applied. 

A library of commercial law text-books is at the disposal of 
the students. 



Mr. Meredith. 

Bookkeeping is the most important and usually the most at- 
tractive study of the distinctively commercial group. It is the 
subject with which all the other subjects of this group are most 
closely correlated. The aim of the course is to give the student 
a thorough understanding of the principles of bookkeeping as 
well as of the various approved methods for teaching the same. 
Both class and individual methods of instruction are used. 
Business practice is also carried on as a part of the work of this 
course as well as a comprehensive study of the various business 
papers and forms. 

The advanced course in bookkeeping consists of the study of the 
theory of accounts and the fundamental principles of account- 
ing. It also includes a detailed study of the various modern 
text-books in bookkeeping and a comparison of the methods used 
in each. The methods of keeping the books of a modern bank 
and also those of some local industry are studied. 

An advanced business practice set is carried on by this de- 
partment in conjunction with the bookkeeping department of 
the Salem Commercial School. Students are made familiar 
with the most approved methods of filing business papers. 

Commercial Arithmetic. 

Mr. Meredith. 

Arithmetic occupies an important place in the curriculum of 
a commercial department. It is very closely correlated with 
bookkeeping and helps to interpret other general commercial 
subjects, such as commercial geography, transportation and 
finance. The aim of this course is to give the student an 
accurate knowledge of arithmetic in its application to business 
practice. The theory and practice of teaching it according to 
modern methods is also part of the work. 

Instruction and drill in the use of the adding machine are 
given in this course. 



Miss Townsexd. 

The study of the principles of Benn Pitman shorthand com- 
prises the work of the first half of the course. Dictation practice 
begins very early, the aim being to obtain absolutely accurate 
work at a moderate rate of speed by the time the student com- 
pletes the text. This work is followed by a few weeks" drill for 
a high rate of speed. The professional side of the subject is. 
considered throughout the course, but it is emphasized in the 
senior year by the discussion of methods, the study of pedagogi- 
cal works on the subject of shorthand, by the examination and 
criticism of various text and drill books, by observation in the 
Salem Commercial School, and by observation and practice 
teaching in the Salem High School. 

The Gres'g system of shorthand mav be continued by those 
students who have had a reasonable amount of instruction in 
it elsewhere. 



The first half of this course is devoted to acquiring proficiency 
in the touch method, the professional side of the subject being 
emphasized from the first by showing pupils how to start begin- 
ners in the study of typewriting. Care is taken that students 
form correct habits of position, touch, fingering and manipula- 
tion of the machine. Particular attention is given to the ar- 
rangement of material and to rapid transcription. The course 
includes practice in the use of the neostyle. the mimeograph, the 
letter press and similar office devices. Material in the form of 
correspondence, outlines, abstracts, programs, etc., furnished by 
the various departments of the school, affords a basis for the 
acquisition of experience and skill in this kind of work. 

Methods of teaching typewriting are discussed, and various 
text-books are examined, criticised and compared. Observation 
and practice teaching under supervision and criticism consti- 
tute an important part of the work of the third year. 





Mr. Doner. 

The aims, methods and matter of this course are stated on 
pages 38 and 39, except that in the commercial department a 
course of instruction suitable for high instead of elementary 
school pupils is presented during the senior year. 


Miss Martin. 

The general library contains a collection of books now num- 
bering more than 5,300, including valuable works in all depart- 
ments. The American Library Association system of cata- 
loguing is employed, with a complete card index by authors and 
book titles. This is supplemented by a card system of refer- 
ences by topics, already containing several thousand cards. In 
addition to the general library books, there is a collection of 
about 5,500 reference and text books, also carefully catalogued, 
for use in connection with the various courses. 

In the reading room are filed the leading periodicals, both of 
general nature and of specific value in pedagogical study. 


Since the issue of last year's catalogue the teachers and stu- 
dents have had the privilege of listening to the following lec- 
tures and concerts : — 

Customs and Duties, . . . Hon. James 0. Lyford, Naval 

Officer of the Port of Boston. 
Annual concert, .... The Glee Club. 
Courses of Study in Commercial Frank B. Thompson, Head Master 
Schools. of the High School of Com- 

merce, Boston. 
Characteristics of Leading Sys- Edward F. Eldredge, Director of 
terns of Shorthand. the Secretarial Department, 

Simmons College. 
What the Business Man de- George P. Lord, Principal of the 

mands of his Employees. Salem Commercial School. 

Municipal Government, . . Hon. John M. Raymond. 


Reading: Selections from the 

Book of Job. 
Town House Square, Salem, . 
Memorial Day address, 

Graduation address: The Train- 
ing of Our Teachers. 
The Teacher's Opportunity, 

Exercises in honor of the cen- 
tennial of the birth of Prof. 
Alpheus Crosby, the second 
principal of the school. 

Art in the Public Schools, 

Concert : String quartet from 
the New England Conserva- 
tory of Music. 

The Personality of the Teacher, 

Recital: Children's Songs, 
Reading: Othello, ■ . 

Violin recital, .... 

The East versus the West, 
Moral Education, 

Prof. John Duxbury, Manchester, 

. Eng. 

Sidney Perley, Esq. 

John A. Gilman, Commander Mas- 
sachusetts Department of the 
G. A. R. 

President William H. P. Faunce, 
Brown University. 

Dr. David Snedden, State Com- 
missioner of Education. 


Walter Sargent, University of 

President Cheesman A. Herrick, 

Girard College. 
Victoria Sordoni. 
President Henry L. Southwick, 

Emerson College of Oratory. 
William L. Daley and Theresa E. 

Daley, New England Conserva- 
tory of Music. 
Kioyo S. Inui. 
Mrs. Ella Lyman Cabot, Member 

of the Massachusetts Board of 

President Marion L. Burton, 

Smith College. 


Students in a school for the professional training of teachers 
should be self-governing in the full sense of the term. Each 
student is allowed and is encouraged to exercise the largest 
degree of personal liberty consistent with the rights of others. 
The teachers aim to be friends and leaders, rather than gov- 
ernors and masters. They will not withhold advice, admonition 


and reproof, if needed; but their work in such lines will be 
done with individuals, and in the most helpful and generous 
spirit. Those students who, after full and patient trial, are 
found unworthy of such consideration, are presumed to be unfit 
or unlikely to become successful teachers, and will be removed 
from the school. Others, also, who, by no fault of their own, 
but by the misfortune of conspicuous inaptitude, through physi- 
cal or mental deficiencies, are unfit for the work of teaching, will 
be advised to withdraw, and will not be graduated. 

Many matters pertaining to the general welfare of the school 
are referred for consideration to the school council. This is a 
representative body, consisting of the principal and two other 
members of the faculty, and one member chosen by each divi- 
sion of the senior and junior classes. Thus the students, through 
their representatives, have a voice in the management of the 
school, and also assume their share of the responsibility for its 

Expenses, Aid, Board, etc. 

Tuition is free to all residents of Massachusetts who declare 
their intention to teach in the schools of this Commonwealth. 
Students admitted from other States are required to pay a tuition 
fee of fifty dollars per year, of which sum one-half is due Sep- 
tember 7 and the other half February 1. Text-books and sup- 
plies are free, as in the public schools. Articles used in school 
work which students may desire to own will be furnished at 
cost. Students who come to Salem to board are advised to 
bring with them such text-books of recent date as they may own. 

To assist those students, residents of Massachusetts, who find 
it difficult to meet the expenses of the course, pecuniary aid is 
furnished by the State to a limited extent. Applications for 
this aid must be made in writing, to the principal, and must be 
accompanied by such evidence as shall satisfy him that the 
applicant needs assistance. This aid, however, is not furnished 
to residents of Salem, nor during the first half-year of attend- 
ance at the school. 

Through the generosity of members of the faculty and grad- 
uates of the school, several funds have been established, all of 
which, by vote of the Salem Normal School Association, are 
administered by the principal as loan funds. Students may 


thus borrow reasonable sums of money with which to meet their 
expenses during their connection with the school, and payment 
may be made at their convenience, after they have secured posi- 
tions as teachers. 

Besides the Students' Benefit Fund are other funds, founded 
by graduates of the school as memorials to Prof. Alpheus 
Crosby, principal from 1857 to 1865; Dr. Daniel B. Hagar, 
principal from 1865 to 1895; Dr. Walter P. Beckwith, principal 
from 1895 to 1905; and to Dr. Elmer H. Capen, formerly 
chairman of the board of visitors. The total amount of money 
now available is about $2,000. The principal will gladly receive 
and credit to any of the above funds such contributions as grad- 
uates and friends of the school may be disposed to make. Fre- 
quently a little timely financial aid from this source may save 
to the profession an efficient teacher. 

The expense of board is moderate; two students rooming to- 
gether can usually find accommodations within easy distance of 
the school, including light and heat, at prices ranging upward 
from $4.50 each, per week. A list of places where board may 
be obtained is kept at the school, and reasonable aid will be 
given to students who are seeking boarding places. It is ad- 
visable to make inquiries some time before the beginning of 
the school year. 

A lunch counter is maintained in the building, from which is 
served at noon each school day a good variety of wholesome and 
attractive food, at very reasonable prices. 

Attendance and Conduct. 

1. Students living at home, on finding themselves likely to be 
absent more than one day, are desired to make known the fact 
in writing. 

2. Students who are withdrawing from school must return 
the books and other property of the school, and receive regular 
dismission. Those who fail to do so promptly must not expect 
at a later date any recommendation or endorsement from the 
teachers of the school. 

3. Absences for the purpose of teaching or of acting as sub- 
stitutes for more than one day must be arranged in advance. 
In general, absence for this purpose during the first year of a 
student's course will not be regarded with favor. 


4. Students must be present 'at the opening of school after 
any recess or vacation, and must remain until all are excused. 

5. Students boarding in Salem must not make arrangements 
involving absence from any school exercise without previously 
obtaining permission. 

6. Students boarding in this vicinity, away from their parents, 
whether over or under legal age, must keep the principal in- 
formed of their addresses. All boarding places are subject to 
the judgment of the principal. 

As the school has no dormitory, those who receive its students 
into their homes must, of necessity, assume responsibility for 
the conduct of the young women thus placed in their charge 
in the same measure as would be required of teachers in charge 
of a dormitory. They are therefore requested to report to the 
principal any impropriety of conduct on the part of students 
which ought to be known by him, or any behavior of theirs 
which would be considered unsuitable in a well-regulated dormi- 

Employment for Graduates. 

The increase in the number of normal school graduates em- 
ployed in Massachusetts as teachers has been, especially during 
the past twenty years, very much greater proportionately than the 
increase in the whole number of teachers, but even at the present 
time they constitute but about sixty per cent, of all the teachers 
in the State, and the demand is annually greater than 
the supply; especially for the higher grammar grades there is 
a marked scarcity of strong candidates. Although the school 
does not undertake to guarantee positions to its students, it is a 
fact that graduates of any department are rarely without posi- 
tions three months after graduation. The principal takes 
pleasure in assisting them to obtain such positions as they are 
qualified to fill. To that end he is glad to correspond or to 
confer with school authorities. He also wishes to be kept in- 
formed as to the degree of success which has attended the efforts 
of former students. 


Scholarships for Graduates. 

There are offered at Harvard University four scholarships, 
each of an annual value of one hundred fifty dollars, for the 
benefit of students in Harvard College who are graduates of 
any reputable normal school in the United States. 

Notices to School Officials. 

All interested persons, especially those connected in any way 
with educational work, are cordially invited to visit the school, 
to inspect the building and equipment, or to attend the exer- 
cises in its class rooms or practice schools at any time and 
without ceremony. 

During the summer vacation, some person qualified to give 
information regarding the school, its work and the conditions 
of admission will be at the building each forenoon, except Satur- 
day. Requests for catalogues are always promptly honored. 

Superintendents and other school officials are requested to 
send to the school copies of their reports, courses of study and 
other publications of common interest. The courtesy will be 
appreciated and reciprocated. 

Every person claiming to be a graduate of this school should 
be able to show either a diploma or a certificate of the fact of 
graduation. Since January 1, 1900, all" students who have left 
the school by reason of graduation, or otherwise in good stand- 
ing, possess a diploma, a certificate showing the completion of a 
year's work, or a certificate of honorable dismissal. The last- 
named paper is not to be understood as a recommendation of 
proficiency in scholarship or teaching ability. 

Historical Sketch. 

The State formal School at Salem was opened to students 
September 12, 1854. It was the fourth normal school established 
by the .State of Massachusetts. Its first building stood at the 
corner of Broad and Summer streets. This was enlarged and 
♦ improved in 1860, and again in 1871. After twenty-five year? 
the accommodations proved inadequate to meet the increased 
demands made upon modern normal schools, and an appropria- 


tion was made by the Legislature for a new building, which was 
first occupied by the school December 2, 1896. The site, build- 
ing and equipment represent an expenditure of $300,000; and 
it is believed that the Commonwealth here possesses a structure 
as complete and convenient as any of its kind in this country. 

The School Building 

The building is located in the southern part of the city, — a 
section devoted chiefly to residential purposes, — in a command- 
ing position at the junction of the electric car lines from Lynn 
and Marblehead. 

In the basement are the gymnasium, with its adjoining dress- 
ing room and shower baths, the industrial laboratory and the 
lunch room. The first floor is occupied by the practice school. 
The rooms are all large and well lighted, and, including the 
kindergarten, they are intended to accommodate 350 pupils. 
On the second floor is the assembly hall of the normal school. 
It is about 60 by 85 feet in size, and can accommodate 250 
single desks and chairs. The remainder of this floor contains 
the principal's offices, the reception room, the library, and vari- 
ous recitation and work rooms. On the third floor are the 
science laboratories, the studios and the lecture room. 


It is generally conceded that no building or schoolroom is 
finished or furnished which lacks beautiful and artistic dec- 
orations, not only because these objects are beautiful in them- 
selves, but because of the refining and educative value. There 
is a silent influence resulting from the companionship of good 
pictures or casts, elevating the thought, and creating a 
dislike for the common, ugly and inferior type of decoration so 
often seen. The school has many pictures and casts, the gifts of 
the students, the faculty and other friends of the school, and all 
these have been selected with great care and artistic judgment, 
so that the whole is harmonious. 

The Teachers and Students. 

The school during its history has had five principals and 
eighty-two assistant teachers. The development of the practice 
schools began in 1897, and with them thirty-nine persons have 


been connected as teachers. Nineteen teachers are now required 
in the normal school and fifteen in the practice schools. 

About six thousand students have attended the school. The 
proportion of those who complete the course has been increasing 
steadily in recent years. 

The Location and Attractions of Salem. 

No place in northeastern Massachusetts is more easily accessi- 
ble than Salem. It is on the main line of the eastern division 
of the Boston & Maine Eailroad system, connecting with 
the Saugus branch at I/ynn. A branch road to "Wakefield 
Junction connects the city with the western division. There is 
direct communication with Lowell, Lawrence, Haverhill, Eock- 
port and Marblehead. Trains are frequent and convenient. 
Salem is also the center of an extensive network of electric 
railways. Students coming daily to Salem on Boston & Maine 
trains can obtain season tickets at greatly reduced rates. Trains 
on the Marblehead branch stop at Loring Avenue, on signal, 
and many students find it more convenient to purchase their 
season tickets to that station. 

Salem is the center of many interesting historical associations, 
and within easy reach are the scenes of more important and 
stirring events than can be found in any other equal area of our 
country. The scenery, both of seashore and country in the 
neighborhood, is exceedingly attractive. There are many libra- 
ries, besides the free public library, and curious and instructive 
collections belonging to various literary and antiquarian organ- 
izations, to which access may be obtained at a slight expense. 
Lectures are frequent and inexpensive. The churches of the city 
represent all the religious denominations that are common in 
New England. 

O I 



Graduates. — Class XCVI. — June 21, 1910. 

Elementary Course. 

Barentzen, Olive Mary, 

Barnes, Charlotte, 

Blood, Marion Helena, 

Boycl, Grace Gladys, . 

Burnham, Alice Stacy, 

Butterfielcl, Marion Ascenath, 

Cahill, Elizabeth Cecelia, . 

Carroll, Margaret Mary, . 

Corson, Murle Augusta, 

Cotter, Chester, . 

Coyne, Sara Stanislaus, . 

Dempsey, Mary Louise, 

Donovan, Mary Frances, . 

Edgecomb, Elva Dawn, 

FitzHugh, Lena Grayson, . 

Slanders, Leona, . . 

Fowler, Maude Anna, 

Fox, Agnes Gertrude, 

Gardner, Laura Alston, 

Gardner, Marion Warren, 

Gilmore, Mary Elizabeth, . 

Harney, Margaret Laurentia, 

Harrington, Alida Hilton, . 

Healy, Alice Jeanette, 

Houghton, Lucy Forbush, . 

Hutchins, Susie Blanche, . 

Jones, Agnes Marian, 

Keating, Mary Veronica, . 

Kelley, Florence Gardelena, 

King, Mabel Disa, 

Kinnear, Margaret Alexander Watson, 

Laskey, Adelaide Mary, 

Franklin Park. 


Derry, N. H. 




Dan vers. 













Dan vers. 





North Andover. 

Union, N. H. 








Lord, Marian Dean, . 
Loring, Marion Alice, 
Maguire, Marion, 
Merritt, Ruth Breed, . 
Moran, Mabel May, . 
Mulligan, Helen Marie, 
Murphy, Gertrude Agatha, 
Nelson, Elizabeth Kristina Louise, 
Newcomb, Marion Faustina, 
O'Neill, Edna Gertrude, . 
O'Neil, Loretto Magdalen, . 
O'Connor, Eleanor Spelman, 
Perley, Grace Mildred, 
Perry, Dorothy, . 
Pierce, Lillian Mae, 
Powell, May Veronica, 
Pulsifer, Helen Marks, 
Ricles, Edith Bella, . 
Riley, Mary Elouise, . 
Robertson, Elizabeth Harriet, 
Shortell, Mary Beatrice, . 
Stack, Mary Lillian, . 
Stearns, Helen Isabelle, . 
Swanson, Fanny Amelia, . 
Thurston, Lura, . 
Tucker, Ruth Elizabeth, 
Walker, Eleanor Elizabeth, 
Ward, Gertrude Beatrice, . 
Welch, Irene Marie, . 
Weston, Martha Mary, 
Wildes, Mary Aloysia, 
Woods, Esther Jane, . 

Harrington, Me. 












East B oxford. 










West Somerville. 

Pigeon Cove. 


North Reading. 







Commercial Course. 

Bruce, Helen, .... 

. Rockport. 

Car dwell, Nelson Henry, . 


Daverin, Maude Burbank, . 


Davis, Augusta Louise, 


Day, Mary Ellen, 


Fitzgerald, Edwin a Frances, 


Giles, Martelle Elsie, 



Gould, Mary Gertrude, 
Healy, Agnes Leona, . 
Hickey, Florence Augusta, 
Ivers, Mabel Florence, 
Keith, Nelly Doris, . 
Kennedy, Abbie Jones, 
Martin, John Edward, 
Mulligan, Nellie Elizabeth, 
Oliver, Warren Walton, . 
Pearson, Signe Hilda, 
Roche, Anna Theodora, 
Slade, Madeleine Louise, . 
Standley, Ethel Frances, . 
Wilbur, Lawrence Winton, 

Dan vers. 






West Peabody. 







North Raynham. 

Certificates for One Year's Work. 
Elementary Course. 
Coburn, Elizabeth Vienna, 

Gavin, Agnes Mary, . 
Irving, Eva Christena, 
Philbrook, Susan, 
Warner, Annie Mabelle, 






Commercial Course. 

Bates, Alice Cecil, 
Henry, Margaret Lee, 
Hogan, Marie Gertrude, . 
Howard, Pauline Sumner, . 
Lewis, Bertha, . 
Lyon, Marguerite Helen, . 
MacDow, George Wilson, . 
Peabody, Mabel Florence, . 
Power, Alice Helena Marie, 
Weaver, Frances Edna, 


Norwalk, Conn. 









Students in the Elementary Course. 

Senior Class. 

Albert, Rose, 
Barteau, Clara Irene, . 
Burnham, Mary Alice, 
Beadle, Helen Josephine, 



Cotton, Edith Frances, 
Cress} 7 , Ruth Augusta, 
Cronin, Sybil Louise Mary 
Crosby, Mildred Parker, 
Crowley, Madeline Usher, 
Cur ley, Grace Francis, 
Cushing, Mary Esther, 
Danner, Bertha Hertgen, 
Decatur, Rena Althea, 
Dickinson, Helena Minnie, 
Doyle, Alberta Ruth, . 
Eames, Hilda Weston, 
Edmands, Mary Luella, 
FitzGerald, Mary Frances, 
Granfield, Susie Frances, 
Grant, Grace Marguerite, 
Greene, Agnes Gertrude, 1 
Griffin, Mary Elizabeth, 
Hall, Margaret "Sturges, 1 
Harlih, Gertrude Alice, 
Harrigan, Frances Agnes, 
Harris, Daisy, . 
Hickey, Emma May, . 
Hill, Mabel Louise, . 
Hinkley, Fannie Crowell, 
Howard, Ethelyn Adams, 
Hoyle, Lillian Mary, . 
Hunter, Ethel Annas, 
Israelite, Anna Bessie, 
Jenkins, Lena, . 
Johnson, Helen Louise, 
Kline, Elizabeth Margaret, 
Klippel, Laura Estelle, 
Lambert, Georgia Dorothy 
Lang, Florence Ardell, 
Lord, Florence Elliot, 
Macdonald, Josephine Elsie, 
Haddock, Ruth Valerie, 
Magraw, Maria Pearl, 
McPhetres, Eva Lucretia, 









West Peabody 



North Reading 






















Lynn. v 







1 Left before the end of the first half year. 


MeSwiney, Mary Cecilia, 
Morrissey, Mary Jane, 
Myers, Ruth Ethel, . 
Nelson, Maude Wellington 
Norton, Marjorie, 
Parsons, Helen Gaffney, 
Peachey, Florence Bailey, 
Perley, Charlotte, 
Peterson, Marion Crosmai 
Phillips, Edith Elizabeth, 
Poor, Ethel Mirriam, 
Pratt, Eva Louise, 
Prescott, Dorothy Nutting 
Quinn, Alice Irene, . 
Ramhofer, Lena Louise, 
Reeve, Alice Louise, . 
Reiman, Elsie May, . 
Reynolds, Abbie Elizabeth 
Riley, Marguerite Rose, 
Roche, Elizabeth Constance, 
Scott, Laura Amelia, . 
Shannon, Mabel Elizabeth 
Small, Esther Louise, 
Smith, Lulu Belle, . . 
Smith, Rose Catherine, 
Solomon, Genorie Palmer, 
Spofford, Celia May, . 
Spofford, Lelia Frances, 
Swanson, Gerda Florence, 
Taylor, Sadie Mildred, 
Tucker, Mabel Hammond, 
Walsh, Katharine Frances, 
Whalen, Abbie Elizabeth, 
Wildes, Mildred Fern, 


North Andover. 




Pigeon Cove. 


















North Andover. 



Melrose Highlands. 

Melrose Highlands. 

Pigeon Cove. 





South Hamilton. 

Students in Second Year of Three-years Course. 

Burnham, Gladys Frances, 
Connery, Anna Laura, 
Cook, Alice Marguerite, 
Doran, Phoebe Martha Hughes, 
Furfey, Josephine Esther, . 







Hale, Ruth Elizabeth, 


Herlihy, Catherine Mary, . 

North Cambridge. 

Ingham, Mabel Russell, 


Leonard, Alice Virginia, . 


McCauley, Alice Katherine, 


Merrill, Lillian Dimond, . 


Merrow, Helen, . . 


Mullin, Frances Marie, 


Norcross, Alice Almira, 


Perkins, Susan Stevens, 


Ruth, Jennie Viola, 1 . 


Sargent, Helen Marion, 


Scully,- Katherine Veronica, 


Simonds, Margaret Story, . 


Striley, Amy Marguerite, . 


Sumner, Grace Ria, . 


Tweeddale, Ruth Barbour, . 


Whitman, Mary Eva, 


Special Students, One-year Course. 

Archer, Mary E., Salem. 

Cahill, Elizabeth Cecelia, . 


Eastman, Magna Dean, 

. Framingham. 

French, Carrie Russell, 


Titcomb, Grace, .... 

. Maiden. 

Junior Class. 

Baker, Emma May, West Somerville. 

Beale, Helene Lambert, 

West Medf ord. 

Bogrette, Jane Frances, 


Bowler, Claire Ann, . 


Bowler, Ruth Isabel, . 


Burns, Agnes Ellen Olive, . 


Cahoon, Margaret Cecilia, . 


Campbell, Clara Louise, . 

North Reading. 

Chamberlin, Alice Maude, . 


Chapman, Myrtie Hoag, 


Chase, Lucinda Norma, 

Seabrook, N. H. 

Collins, Eva Hadley, . 


Collins, James Samuel, 


1 Left before the end of the first half year. 


Collins, Nora Marie, . 

. Beachmont. 

Conners, Charlotte Newton, 


Curry, Catherine Teresa, . 


Daley, Theresa Edna, 

. Maiden. 

Davis, Claire Veronica, 


Deering, Mary Katherine, . 


DeLory, Evelyn Whitney, . 


Denton, Maude Holt, . 


Dodd, Sadie Frances, . 


Dugmore, Florence Mabel, 

. Medford. 

Dunham, Florence Helen, . 


Dwyer, Mary Imelda, 


Edmunds, Mary Louise, . 

. Medford. 

Ellis, Bertha Louise, . 


Fahey, Eleanore Louise, . 


Fairchild, Bertha Irene, 


Farnham, Dorothy Woodbridge, 

. Maiden. 

Fegan, Mildred Ayers, 


Fitzgerald, Jetta Louise, . 


Fisher, Ethel Stoekwell, . 


Flagg, Pauline, 


Flaherty, May Lorraine Regina, 1 


Galvin, Bertha Katherine, . 


Geary, Mary Louise, . 

. Maiden. 

George, Ida May, . 


Giddings, Carrie Anna, 


Gilmore, Joseph Michael, . 


Graham, Mary Pauline. 


Griffiths, Alice Elizabeth, . 


Halliday, Mary Mildred, . . . 


Harrold, Beulah Christine, 


Hayes, Elizabeth Ruth, 1 


Hickey, Ruth Elizabeth, . 

. Wakefield. 

Hill, Hortense Frances, . 


Hilliard, Mildred Jewell, . 

East Kingston, N. H. 

Hobbs, Gwendolyn Day, . 


Hodgkins, Edith Jane, 

. Medford. 

Hodsdon, Helene Charles, . 

. Fryeburg, Me. 

Holder, Lillian, 1 .... 

. Lynn. 

Hughes, Viola Myrtle, 


Hunt, Caroline Lois, . 


i Left before the end of the first half year. 


Usley, Sarah Elizabeth, 
Jackson, May Serlena, 
James, Vivian Z., 
Johnson, Anna Nathalie, . 
Johnson, Pemal Sophronia, 
Keene, Leone Millicent, 
Kenneally, Anne Elizabeth, 
Kenny, Mary Agnes, . 
Killen, Mildred Anna, 
Killion, Anna Mary, . 
King, Hazel Frances, 1 
Knight, Caroline Marion, . 
Levy, Frances Agnes, ' 
Loring, Eva Mildred, . 
MacAdams, Mary Teresa Hilda 
MaeCarthy, Ruth, 
MacGregor, Marion Gertrude, 
Mackin, Gertrude Elizabeth, 
Maguire, Mary Anne, 
Mahoney, Katherine Agnes, 
Manning, Mary Helena, . 
Martin, Anna Gertrude, . 
McCarthy, Alice Louise, . 
McCoy, Margaret Annette, 
McDonald, Helen Gertrude, 
McLaughlin, Lucelia Agnes, 
Millea, Grace D'Arcy, 
Milier, Mary Ellen, . 
Mulally, Anna Clementine, 
Murray, Henrietta, . 
Murphy, Madeline Bernadine, 
Nichols, Maude Ethel, 
O'Neil, Grace Ruth, . 
Orne, Madeline, . 
Patch, Mary Louise, . 
Perry, Emma Andrews, 
Pitman, Ernest Clayton, . 
Porter, Bertha Idella, 
Putnam, Marion, 
Ramsey. Florence Collette, 
Samuel, Rose, 1 . 




















North Cambridge. 


West Peabody. 




















1 Left before the end of the first half year. 


Seaton, Mildred, 
Sharkey, Annie Gertrude, . 
Sheafe, Ruth Yiola, . 
Smith, Amy Francena, 
Smith, Barbara Eloise, 1 
Stetson, Estelle Frances, . 
Stetson, Elizabeth Jewett, . 
Strong, William H., 1 . 
Strout, Margaret Dodge, . 
Surrette, Mary Jane Victoria, 
Thornton, Helen Ellis, 
Tompkins, Emeline Frances, 
Tynes, Lillian May, . 
Watkins, Winifred Belle, . 
Welch, Alice Gertrude, 
Willey, Mildred Anna, 




North Andover. 




East Boston. 



Saugus. . 


North Cambridge. 




Students in the Commercial Course. 

Senior Class. 

Flaherty, Mary Aloysie, 
Hayward, Beth Sylvia, 
Millea, Alice Marie, . 
Pedersen, Dora Christina, 
Pedersen, Jennie Marie, 
de Sloovere, Mary Constance, 
Turbett, Alice Rose, . 


South Easton. 






Students in Second Year of Three-years Course. 

Brophy, Elnora Kathleen, . . . -. Gloucester. 

Clark, Anna Keenan, .... Marblehead. 

HinckclifTe, Eva Mary, .... Stoneham. 

Wiggin, Lelia May, Danvers. 

Special Students, One-year Course. 

Oliver, Warren Walton, .... Wakefield 

Smith, Edith Whitney, . 

Sullivan, Arthur J., . . . . . Salem. 

Gorham, Me. 

1 Left before the end of the first half year. 


Special Students, Two- years Course. 

Davis, Nina Amanda, 
Dow, Ethel Helen, 
Johnson, Olive Florence, 
Sanford, Pearle Aurilla, 

Auburn, Me. 

Junior Class. 

Brown, Eliza Florence, 
Curtis, Madolin, 
Fitch, Marion Abbie, 
Foley, William Lawrence, 
Gale, Gladys Marie, 1 . 
Jenkins, Mildred, 1 
Levy, Mary Genevieve, 
Loges, Edith May, . 
McGlew, John James, Jr., 
Peabody, Helen Gertrude, 1 
Powell, Charlotte Louise, 
Schribman, Rena, 1 
Thomas, Winnifred Adelaide, 
Whitney, Rosalba, 



Sterling Junction. 













Students of the elementary course, . 
Special students, elementary course, . 
Students of the commercial course, . 
Special students, commercial course, . 





Whole number of students from opening of school, 
Whole number of graduates, .... 
Number of certificates for one year's work, 



J Left before the end of the first half year. 



Applicants for admission to the school must comply with the 
following requirements : — 

For final examinations, that is, for admission in September 
of the year in which the application is made : — 

1. A certificate of graduation from high school or a certificate 
for admission without examination in one or more subjects. 1 

2. A certificate of health from a physician. 

3. A written application for admission. 1 

4. An oral examination in reading, at the school. 

5. A personal interview with the principal, at the school. 


For preliminary' examinations, that is, for admission not 
earlier than September of the year following that in which appli- 
cation is made : — 

1. A certificate from the principal of the high school that the 
candidate is prepared to take certain examinations. 1 

2. A written application for admission. 1 

3. A personal interview with the principal, at the school. 2 

1 These must be made out on the printed forms provided by\the school. 

2 No candidate will be admitted who has not met this requirement.